Friday, 29 October 2010

Elegant Green Smoothie

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Buttermilk,  Cucumber, Celery, Radishes, Jalapeño, Parsley, and a  Piece of Lemon Blended together for a Delicious, Health-Promoting Breakfast-in-a-Glass
M-J's Elegant Green Diuretic Smoothie

Elegant Cornish Pasties

M-J de Mesterton’s Cornish Pasties

OCTOBER 3, 2009
Home-Gardens Yield lots of Turnips, onions and potatoes in Autumn: Use Them the Traditional Cornish Way for a Nutritious, Easy-to-Serve, Elegant Luncheon
tags: Cornish Pasty Recipe, Elegant Meat Dishes, How to Make Cornish Pasties, M-J de Mesterton Original, M-J de Mesterton's Cornish Pasties, Pasty, Pasty of the Copper Country
by M-J de Mesterton

Cornish Pasty Made by M-J de Mesterton
Devon-Style Pasty Made by M-J de Mesterton (Pasties Crimped on Top)
I’ve been making Cornish pasties since the age of 20. My mother wrote a book about the pasty and its history which was published in 1990, but my method and ingredients differ from hers. The following is  my pasty (pronounced “pass-tee”) recipe: I will not formally transcribe my recipe and method for making pasties, because  I never use measurements. I can tell you, however, that they are made with a short crust containing both butter and lard, water, a teaspoon of malt vinegar, and unbleached, plain white flour. Since salted butter is used in the dough, add just a dash of salt to it.  I add sea-salt and hand-milled pepper to the filling, which consists of  four ingredients, diced very finely: tri-tip steak, which is always well-marbled and never tough; ordinary, high-starch brown-skinned potatoes, turnips, butter bits, and white or Spanish onions. The finely-diced beef and vegetables are tossed together in a mixing bowl with the salt and pepper before being laid upon the dough, dotted with butter and enclosed. The edges are crimped, either on top or on the side of the pasty, and a couple of well-placed slits are made in the top to allow steam to escape. The final product is brushed with a beaten egg mixed with a teaspoon of cream. The pasties are then baked in a very hot oven for close to one hour. Once the pasties have cooled for about twenty minutes, serve with an oil-and-vinegar-dressed lettuce salad. Offer Cornish cream, crème fraîche, Mexican Crema, or sour cream as an optional condiment. The pasties depicted here, which I made,  are the optimum size for a meal; the dough for them was shaped into a ball about half the size of a woman’s closed hand, then was rolled out and cut around a 7″ luncheon plate.  Making giant pasties just isn’t elegant, nor is it traditionally Cornish. I also make miniature pasties for parties, by using a tin can or the bottom, inner ridge of the same luncheon plate as a cutting guide. These mini-pasties are easily eaten by hand with a bread-plate or cocktail napkin to catch any pastry-flakes. For a basic short-crust guide, please see my Elegant Apple Pie recipe.~~Recipe and Pasty Photos Copyright M-J de Mesterton
Cornish Pasty Made by M-J de Mesterton, Copyright 2009

Thursday, 28 October 2010

M-J's Elegant Autumn Potato Salad

M-J's Elegant Autumn Potato Salad
Like the potato salad that my Swedish grandmother used to make for me, this dish relies upon some bacon, vinegar, and an onion.

Peel, quarter and boil eight medium sized potatoes, or ten small ones. Salt the boiling water. Alternatively, add some Maggi or Knorr chicken bouillon powder.
Boil the potato chunks for fifteen minutes. Drain but do not rinse them. In your cooking pot, sauté eight strips of bacon, finely chopped. Remove the bacon bits with a slotted spoon. and reserve in a small bowl or cup. Empty out  half of the bacon fat. Add two tablespoons of vegetable oil (I use peanut oil) and two tablespoons of vinegar (I use malt vinegar, apple cider vinegar, or white vinegar). If you have it, a tablespoon of concentrated apple juice can be added to this dressing mixture. You will adjust the vinegar and oil to your taste after the initial mixing of all ingredients. Add the potatoes, one finely diced small onion (red, white or yellow), and one diced, unpeeled apple. Grind some pepper into the mixture for taste, and check for salt. Mix gently. Serve lukewarm or at room temperature for  best flavor.
~~Recipe and Photo of Autumn Potato Salad Copyright M-J de Mesterton, 2008 

Make Your Own Finnish-Style Cheese: Leipäjuusto

Make Your Own Finnish-Style Cheese: Leipäjuusto

SEPTEMBER 29, 2008
by M-J de Mesterton
Leipäjuusto Photo by Teemu Rajala
Leipäjuusto and Cloudberry Jam: Photo by Teemu Rajala

Click Image to Enlarge Recipe

My mother gave me a booklet in 1985, when it was published: Kitsi Finnish Foodways, a publication of Suomi College (now called Finlandia University) for FinnFest 1985. My copy of Kitsi is yellowed. I don’t think my dear, departed mother ever made squeaky cheese, but, working at Suomi College’s Finnish-American Heritage Center, she did draw the illustrations on Kitsi’s cover. Leipäjuusto is an unusual creation that I really like with rye bread, when in Finland. Here is the recipe for making your own Finnish Squeaky Cheese.
Update: I’ve just found my mother’s friend, Beatrice Ojakangas’ blog, where she hosts a richer recipe for leipäjuusto.

Wednesday, 27 October 2010

Post-Frost Harvest Cookery

Don't chuck out your last tomatoes and peppers, even though they have frozen on the vine before maturation. Taking a tip from French chefs through the ages, I never waste produce. These vegetables are destined for M-J's Original Sauce Ragú, pictured below in the first stage of cooking.
©M-J de Mesterton 2010

The Beets Go On...

...and on, late into October

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Beets continue growing slowly in cold weather. (Beetroot, Beets, Betteraves, Betabel)

The Elegant Miguel Torres

The Elegant Miguel A. Torres, Vintner of Spain


by M-J de M.
Elegant Survival has been featuring wines by Torres of Spain for three years.
Article by Jay McInerney in the Wall Street Journal, “A Spanish Dynasty Looks Forward”
The elegant, courtly Miguel Torres has mild blue eyes and dresses in the tweedy style of the English country gentry, also favored by the chatelains of Bordeaux. At the age of 68 he seems to retain a youthful sense of curiosity; he has recently decided to take up Japanese and holds his own in a conversation with his Japanese importer, whose annual visit to the sprawling winery complex in Penedès coincides with my own. He drives a Prius, which seems as much a testament to his modest demeanor as to his passion for environmental issues. He stopped using pesticides 20 years ago and he’s committed to reducing CO2 emissions at the winery 30% by 2020. He’s also bought land in the cooler highlands near the Pyrenees, in case global warming makes the lowland vineyards in Penedès too hot for viticulture in the future.
~~Jay McInerney in the Wall Street Journal, July 3rd, 2010
Elegant Garnacha: TORRES MALENA

The Elegant Aloe Vera Plant

The elegant aloe vera plant is perfect for household beauty and medical use. Cut off a leaf and squeeze some aloe juice onto a burn, blemish, wound or sunburn. Keep it in the refrigerator in a plastic bag, for later re-application. An aloe plant will grow strong and have an elegant shape. Aloe vera plants make perfect hostess-gifts, and an aloe plant already set in an elegant piece of crockery is a welcome gift for almost anyone. Water-efficient aloes would be perfect dorm-room plants as well, since they can suffer neglect with great dignity, and may come in very handy for youthful skin maladies and emergency wound-care.
©M-J de Mesterton 2010

Cruciferous Vegetables for Good Health

Article about Cruciferous Vegetables in 
The World's Healthiest Foods
The elegant radish can be eaten spread with a little butter, French style, usually as a breakfast component; as a fresh snack with a little salt and pepper, or sliced thinly in a tea-sandwich.
 Radishes are an effective liver-tonic the morning after a dinner party.

Red or purple cabbage is a health-promoting, cancer-inhibiting, cruciferous vegetable.
Green cabbage can be marinated in a salad European-style, stuffed as choux farcí, or stir-fried with other vegetables the Chinese way.
Cauliflower can be sautéed, steamed or baked. Popular methods of preparation include as a component of  casseroles, blanched on vegetable platters with dips,  and served in chunks with tahini sauce.
©M-J de Mesterton 2010

Tuesday, 26 October 2010

Health-Promoting Cauliflower

Serve steamed cauliflower with M-J's Elegant Tahini Sauce for a delicious, health-promoting snack or vegetable dish.


Read an Article about Cauliflower 
in George Mateljan's World's Healthiest Foods

M-J's Elegant Sauce Velouté

Sauce Velouté for an Elegant Dinner Dish Made with Poached Chicken Breasts

M-J's Sauce Velouté Recipe
Save the broth from poaching chicken breasts as shown in a previous post, and make elegant sauce velouté, a classic feature of French cuisine. For this recipe, I would prefer the chicken poaching liquid to contain just salt, white wine, water, and a spoonful of lemon juice.
Make a roux with about two tablespoons each of butter and flour. Stir it until light tan and bubbly.
Add about two cups of chicken broth or poaching liquid, stirring it in quickly.
Cook the ingredients until smooth.
When the sauce is very thick, slowly add a half-cup of cream and incorporate it well, cooking on low heat for another minute. I like to use bamboo tools, because they do not scratch my cookware.

Elegant Sauce Velouté, a French Classic with Many Applications
If you don't plan to use it right away, it is perfectly acceptable to store your sauce velouté in a jar, and refrigerate or freeze until needed. Thaw the sauce slowly in a covered pan or pot, and add some white wine or champagne to taste. Cream may also be stirred-in until the sauce is at the consistency that you prefer. Dress your chicken in this elegant French sauce velouté. It is very good to have at hand for impromptu gatherings, together with some poached and sliced chicken breasts. These two ingredients guarantee you a quickly-prepared, elegant dinner party offering.
©M-J de Mesterton 2010

Make Your Own Elegant Tortilla Chips

MAKE YOUR OWN ELEGANT TORTILLA CHIPS You don't have to throw out your tortillas if they are past their prime. Make them into tortilla chips, which will be very popular with your family and guests, as they are pleasingly different from those bought in the store. Take a stack of tortillas and dust between the layers with salt, pressing it into them. Then, pressing into it with a large knife, cut the stack of tortillas into quarters. Lower a handful-at-a-time of the uncooked chips into bubbling hot oil. For this light and crispy batch, I used a combination of soy oil, which is now sold as "vegetable oil", and lard. Peanut or corn oil are also good for deep-frying tortillas.Deep-Frying Santa Fe Tortillas for Southwest-Style Cocktail Party Snacks
When the chips themselves have developed bubbles and are slightly brown, it's time to remove them from the pot with a runsible or slotted spoon. Drain them on paper towels, and dust with more salt if desired. The cooking oil may be strained, refrigerated and re-used for French fries, yams or potato chips. My recipe for Elegant Guacamole goes very well with these tortilla chips. So do sour cream or crème fraîche, and a mixture of sliced jalapeños with melted Cheddar cheese, baked on top of the chips for a few minutes in a hot oven.
 ©M-J de Mesterton 2009
 M-J de Mesterton's Elegant Guacamole Dip: Find the Recipe on Elegant Cuisine and Elegant Cook.

Monday, 25 October 2010

Elegant Greek Salad

Lettuce, Feta Cheese Chunks, Olives, Olive Oil, Vinegar, Cucumbers, Tomatoes and Cilantro Make an Elegant, Refreshing Luncheon Salad

Elegant Pineapple Chunks

Pineapple Chunks are likely to make your stir-fried dishes and pizzas soggy, if used directly from a can. I soaked pineapple in soy sauce for a couple of minutes, drained and then baked it until the chunks had a caramel-colour. Now the pineapple chunks can be added to any dish and contribute rich flavour and texture.
©M-J de Mesterton 2010

Elegant Escada Skirt, Size 14 at Christabelle's Closet

Read the measurements carefully for a proper fit. 

Escada Skirt, Size 14 at Christabelle's Closet

Elegant Safari Vest, Now $24.95

Cabela's safari vest is such a useful garment, figure-flattering and versatile to the point that you will find ways to dress it up for wear in town: hats, long-sleeved tees, cashmere turtlenecks, shirts with collar and cuffs, corduroy trousers, silk scarves knotted at the neck, wool neckties, foulards--the possibilities are endless. Or, just throw it on for quick trips outdoors, because it has your flashlight or torch in one of its many pockets already, together with other small survival tools that you have hidden there. Cabela's safari vest is fashioned with a focus on fine form and function, perfect for stylish men. Grab it and go, with the rugged glamour that a classic piece of clothing gives a guy!
©M-J de Mesterton 2010

Health-Promoting Soaps Since the 1800s

M-J's Cream of Celery Soup

My Original Recipe: Low-Carbohydrate Celery Soup
Potage de Céleri
Wash a whole head of celery, by cutting the bottom off and bathing the stalks in a sinkful of water. With French chef’s knife, chop finely. Include the celery leaves, which are packed with flavour. In a large pot, melt two tablespoons of butter. Put the chopped celery in, and add a teaspooon of salt, one half-teaspoon of cumin, and freshly ground black pepper to taste. Saute until bright green and almost soft. Stir in a tablespoon of cornstarch (cornflour), which has seven grams of carbs. Saute for two more minutes, and then add one cup of cream and two cups of water. Simmer for ten minutes. Serves six. This soup is a good accompaniment to croques monsieurs for luncheon.
~~Copyright M-J de Mesterton, February 2007

Baking Day with M-J

Once a week, I make a large quantity of my favourite bread-dough, and freeze several balls of it in plastic bags. On Baking Day, I make one or two loaves for immediate use. Taken out of the freezer the night before it is needed, the other balls of dough will be ready to knead one more time and rise again for freshly-baked bread during the week. I use my extra dough for pizzas, hamburger buns, and baguettes. Rather than baking all the dough on Baking Day, which would only guarantee two-and-three day-old loaves, I expend the energy producing the dough in bulk on one day, and bake it whenever I need to during the week.
©M-J de Mesterton 2010

Cooking with Wine: Burgundy in a Box

Wine isn't used just for drinking in France; it is used in cookery, including the famous braised-beef dish boeuf bourguignon. Marinating and cooking meat  in Burgundy wine makes it very tender, with a robust flavour.
In the U.S., you may wish to keep a five-litre box of Almaden Mountain Burgundy (available at Sam's and elsewhere for between 12 and 15 USD) in the kitchen for cooking. This way, a whole bottle of Burgundy, which can be expensive, doesn't need to be opened when you just wish to add a half-cup of it to your dish. The wine is protected in an air-free vessel  inside the box, and is always at-hand for occasional use in cookery. Wine on-tap on top of the refrigerator is a great boon to any creative home-cook. 
©M-J de Mesterton 2010

Antique Japanese Porcelain Markings

Jan-Erik Nilsson's Japanese Antique Porcelain Notes
Baron Morimura's Noritake Porcelain, Made in Japan
Photo by M-J de Mesterton
Click Image to Enlarge It. then Click on New Version for Maximum Resolution

Silver Notes

Silverware Terminology

ALLOY: a metal resulting from the mixture of two or more metals.

APOSTLE SPOON: a popular christening gift during the Middle Ages was an Apostle Spoon, adorned with a miniature statue of one of the Twelve Apostles. Normally relatives and friends would give these gifts in a full set of twelve. Sometimes a thirteenth spoon was added, bearing a miniature statue of Christ.

APPLIED BORDER: a cast or rolled wire border or edge soldered on an article.

ASSAYING: the process of determining the fineness or the constituents of a metal or alloy.

BALANCED PLATING: Oneida Silversmiths' exclusive silverplating process which deposits 50% more pure silver on the back of each piece than on the front. This additional silver protects the area most subject to wear.

BRIGHT FINISH: The finish that imparts to metalware a highly polished, mirror-like surface.

BRITANNIA SILVER: a quality recognized in England, but not in the U.S., as requiring .9584 parts silver.

BRITANNIA WARE: sometimes called Grade A Pewter. It consists of tin, antimony, and copper. Widely used in the mid-part of the 19th century for ornate holloware, it can now used as a base metal in the modern plated holloware industry.

BUTLER (OR SATIN) FINISH: the care of silverware was one of the duties assigned to the English butler. In the course of years of hand rubbing, the silverware took on a distinct luster which today, in modern flatware, is simulated by a process of manufacture known as "Butler Finish". This finish is sometimes called Grey Finish or French Grey Finish. Each may show a varying shade of soft finish, but both fall under the general category of Butler Finish as here described. The finish on flatware is produced by buffing, or polishing the article with different kinds of abrasives. The various terms applied to soft finish are more particularly a trade convenience to indicate the abrasive used rather than to describe standard shades or tones.

CAST BORDER: an applied border made of cast silver.

CASTING: the process of pouring molten metal into molds and so reproducing the models from which the molds were made. These reproductions are called castings.

CHASING: hand-decoration accomplished by small tools and punches which are driven into the metal by means of delicate hammer taps. When flowers, scrolls, etc., are simply impressed into flat surfaces it is called Flat Chasing. When the ornamentation is brought up in high relief by driving out the metal from the inside and then modelled back into detailed form it is called Repousse Chasing.

COIN SILVER: silver assaying 900 parts pure silver to every 1000 parts. Once the composition of U.S. silver coins.

CUT-CARD: a decorative technique similar to applique work in sewing. Thin sheets of silver are cut into patterns which are then applied as ornamentation.

CUTLERY: knives with cutting edge, (e.g., dinner, dessert, carving knives).

DIE CUTTING OR SINKING: The process by which a design or pattern is cut out of a piece of steel to form a "die" from which a quantity of similar articles can be stamped out or impressed.

DUTCH SILVER: Silverware imported from Holland. Generally very decorative and cast of silver metal very much lower than the Sterling Standard.

ELECTROPLATING: the process was introduced about the year 1842 and is used in making silver plated ware. By this process a layer of silver is electrically deposited on a base metal. (Silverplate).

EMBOSSING: the process of decorating by striking or impressing the metal into a die with force.

ENGINE TURNING: The process of decorating through means of a cutting tool controlled by a craftsman following the design which is applied to the silver from a master pattern or stencil.

ENGRAVING: a process of hand decoration produced by cutting into the surface of the metal with engraving tools.

ETCHING: a process of decoration produced by what might be properly called "chemical engraving". The silver is covered with a protective coating through which the desired design is cut and the design is eaten into the silver by nitric acid. Electrolysis marking by the "Electromark" process produces permanent mark on metal - no acids used. - Black mark if AC is used - White mark if DC is used.

FINE SILVER: the Element -- Pure Silver -- 1000 Fine.

FINISHING: the general term applied to the various processes of polishing silver.

FLATWARE, FLAT SILVER OR SILVERWARE: the trade name for knives, forks, spoons, etc.

GERMAN SILVER: a term used some years ago as interchangeable with Nickel Silver. (See Nickel Silver).

GILDING: The process of applying a layer of pure gold on another metal.

GOLD ELECTROPLATE: articles made of a non-precious metal on which is deposited pure gold by the process of electroplating. Federal standards require a thickness of at least 7 millionths of an inch of at least 10K gold.

GREY FINISH: (See Butler Finish.)

H.H.: stands for "hollow handle". These handles are made of two hollow halves soldered together.

HALL MARK: the official mark of the Goldsmith's Company or other assay office or "Hall" in England, stamped on articles of gold or silver to indicate their purity. In America the Hall Mark is the word "Sterling" accompanied by the name or mark of a reputable manufacturer.

HAMMERED SILVER: a form of decoration resulting from repeated taps on the surface of the metal with a light hammer.

HAND WROUGHT SILVER: an article shaped and decorated from a flat piece of silver by a craftsman using only hand tools and such other non-mechanical aids as facilitate the use and manipulation of such hand tools. In the production of much so-called "hand wrought" silver the identical mechanical processes used in the initial shaping of the article in the normal course of silverware production are followed - and in these cases the term "hand wrought" is incorrectly applied.

HOLLOWARE: the trade reference to tea and coffee services, trays, beverage pitchers, candelabras, or any other piece that serves as a container or means of conveyance.

INSULATORS: heat-resisting substances inserted between the handle and the body of such articles as kettles, teapots, etc.

KNURLING: an ornament cut originally into steel rolls and then impressed from these rolls into the silver as borders on
bowls, dishes, etc.

LAPPED BORDER OR ROLLED EDGE: an article is said to have a rolled edge or lapped border when the metal has been rolled over the edge and spun under to give the effect of a rounded edge.

MONOGRAMMING: a once-common practice of adding initials to flatware and holloware.

MOTIF: the dominant feature of a design.

MOUNTS: small pieces of ornamental metal. These may be ornamented wires, casts or stamped silver soldered on the article as decorations.

NICKEL SILVER: contains no silver at all. A composition of copper, nickel and zinc. OVERLAY: A special overlay of additional silver at points of greatest contact for maximum protection.

OXIDIZING: method of accentuating and enhancing the beauty of ornament by the application of an oxide which darkens the metal whenever applied. Some methods of cleaning silver will remove this oxide.

PATINA: the finish or surface texture. As applied to silver, it refers to the soft lustrous finish the metal acquires with years of usage.

PEWTER: a soft greyish-colored alloy having tin as its chief.component. Originally used as an alternative to sterling prior to the invention of silverplate.

PIERCING: a form of decoration produced by cutting away parts of the metal with cutting dies, punching tools, or in the case of hand piercing, with a thin steel blade with fine teeth.

RAW EDGE: aerm applied to holloware pieces the edges of which have not been turned over or mounted with a border.

REPOUSSE: (See Chasing.)

SHEFFIELD PLATE: the original substitute for Sterling Silver, now displaced by Silverplate. It was made by fusing sheet silver onto copper, rolling and manufacturing into holloware. The discovery of the electrolytic process of depositing silver on the base metal made it possible to produce articles of similar quality to Sheffield at lower cost and so the Sheffield Plate process was virtually abandoned (circa 1840). Today, most fine pieces of "Old Sheffield" aren't available in the commercial market. Much electroplated ware is erroneously advertised or otherwise referred to as "Sheffield Plate". In the purchase of "Sheffield Plate", be sure of the reliability and integrity of your dealer.

SILVERPLATE: articles made on a non-precious metal on which is deposited pure silver by the electroplating process. SILVERSMITHING: General term applied to the various crafts involved in making articles of silver.With advancing specialization in the manufacture of sterling ware, the term has narrowed down to cover specifically the crafts involved in shaping, fitting, and assembling the various parts of an article into a complete piece.

SPINNING: a method of forming or shaping pieces of silver or pewter holloware by revolving a flat disc of the metal over a piece of wood or steel which has been made in the shape of the silver it is to assume. By means of a tool, the silver is spread over the rotating form, finally achieving the desired shape.

SPLADE: a combination knife, fork and spoon, most common in Australia.

STAINLESS STEEL: a highly durable chromium alloy steel practically immune to rusting and ordinary corrosion. Extremely popular for flatware, also used in holloware. 18% chromium with 8% nickel is the most common of higher grade compositions.

STERLING SILVER: the word "Sterling" is the best known and most respected marking in use today. Pure silver alone is too soft for everyday use. Copper is the metal commonly used to give "Sterling" its added stiffness and wearing qualities. Sterling is often referred to as solid silver. It is composed of 925 parts pure silver in every 1000 -- this proportion never varies -- it is fixed by law.

TARNISH: a discoloration that can build on silverplate or sterling if left exposed to the air or if brought into contact with certain foods and chemicals. Can easily be prevented by everyday use or protective storage and is easily removed by commercial silver polishes.

TROY WEIGHT: the unit of weight employed by silversmiths. 1 lb. avoirdupois = 14.58 troy ounces; 1 oz.
avoirdupois = .91 troy ounces.

VERMEIL: silver which has been gilded (coated with gold).

WHITE METAL: a mixture of tin, antimony and copper in varying proportions. "White metal" doesn't contain any silver.

How to Set an Elegant Table

Stainless steel flatware, table-setting, et cetera, explained at the old American company’s web-site:

Table-Setting Guide

Table-Setting Instructions, Based on the Oneida Guide

Breakfast or Luncheon: 

Start with a dinner plate, soup bowl (optional), bread-plate (for toast, muffins, etc.), and a cup with saucer for coffee or tea. For flatware, use a 3-piece place-setting: dinner fork, dinner knife and teaspoon. The napkin should be placed to the left of the fork, unless you prefer to be more creative (see tips below). Finish the setting with either a juice or iced beverage glass.

Dinner or Supper: 

The dinnerware placement is similar to that of a breakfast/lunch setting. Salad plates can be brought to the table as needed. Use a 5-piece flatware place-setting; salad fork, dinner fork, dinner knife, soupspoon and teaspoon. The napkin should be placed to the left of the forks. The table should be set with both a wine glass and a water or iced beverage glass. The coffee cup, with its saucer, may be brought to-table at the end of the meal if needed.

Formal Dinner (including a soup course): 
Set the table with a bread-plate, a service/base plate and dinner plate. If your pattern doesn't offer a service plate, try getting a bit creative by using a 12" metal tray, glass underliner or metal charger. For flatware, use a dinner fork, a salad fork, a dinner knife and a soup-spoon. The butter-spreader or small butter-knife may be placed on the bread-plate. The teaspoon may be placed on the saucer with a coffee cup later. The dessert spoon and dessert fork may be placed above the dinner plate. The fork tines heading rightward, and the spoon-head leftward, above the fork, with both placed horizontally.

To add some flair to your table setting, fold your napkins and place them in the center of the dinner plate or in one of the wineglasses. Napkin-rings may be purchased to coordinate with your china, chargers,  or flatware.

Add the glasses for red wine, white wine and water, as well as a champagne flute if necessary (see Oneida's pictorial chart of table-settings).

Table-Setting Tips:

    •    Keep all tableware approximately one inch from the edge of the table.

    •    Place all knives with the cutting edge toward the plate.

    •    Arrange all flatware in order of use, working from the outside toward the plate for each course served. 

    •    If salad is served after entrée, place salad fork next to plate.

    •    Glass placement: from right to left, white wine, red wine, and water/iced beverage. Champagne may be placed behind red and white.